What we do



ACTwatch aimed to provide a comprehensive picture of markets for antimalarials and diagnostic tests in order to inform national and international malaria case management policy decision-making.

To do that, we studied:

•  Market share, price and availability of different antimalarials and diagnostic tests in public facilities and private retail outlets;

•  Provider knowledge and attitudes concerning appropriate case management of fever; and

•  Case management practices in the public and private sector.

An important part of this work was to ensure that policy makers at national and international levels had access to ACTwatch findings through dissemination of the results. 

Study Components

Outlet Surveys: Monitored trends in the availability, volume and price of antimalarials in the public, private not for-profit and private for-profit sectors, including the informal sector. These surveys were nationally representative (with the exception of DRC) and encompassed all public and private outlet types with the potential to stock antimalarials (from hospitals to private pharmacies to street hawkers). Outlet surveys were conducted approximately every two years.

Household Surveys (2008-2012): Conducted by PSI, these surveys examined trends in the levels of household use of different antimalarials, their source, timing of treatments and whether diagnostic testing for malaria was done. The surveys were nationally representative and conducted twice per country over five years, with the exception of DRC (subnationally representative and conducted once). From 2013, information collected in the household surveys was sought through national Malaria Indicator Surveys and/or Demographic and Health Surveys.

Key Informant InterviewsConducted with stakeholders at all levels in the public and private sectors to provide complementary qualitative information on markets, supply chain, country context and policy environment.

Exit interviews (as of 2013)Assessed fever case management practices and client satisfaction in the public and private sectors through interviews with clients/customers as they exit facilties and other outlets.

Supply Chain Research (2008-2012): Conducted by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, this work identified the determinants of the price and availability of antimalarials at different levels of the supply chain, including markups at each level. The study collected nationally representative information along the supply chain from importer/manufacturer to retailer using a systematic sampling approach and a structured survey alongside qualitative research methods. From 2013, some aspects of the supply chain research were continued through key informant interviews.

Project implementation

PSI country offices in each of the study countries provided the required capacity necessary for successful project implementation. In addition, these offices leveraged their well-established relationships with local governments, policymakers and other relevant stakeholders to achieve project objectives.

Technical support for study planning, training, quality assurance during data collection, data management and data entry (when needed) was provided by ACTwatch, and data cleaning and analysis was done by centrally by ACTwatch research associates.

More on our approach here.


FPwatch assessed family planning markets in Africa and Asia to inform national and international family planning policy and decision-making. 

 To do that, we studied:

•  The availability, relative market share, and price of modern FP methods across public facilities and private retail outlets

•  Contraceptive service availability and readiness of outlets to provide these services

•  Country-specific family planning environments and backgrounds

An important part of this work was to ensure that policy makers at national and international levels had access to FPwatch findings through dissemination of the results.

More on our approach here.